I see there is a the course Building a CMS with ASP.NT MVC 5. What would be the advantages of using one platform over the other?
If the former, there isn’t really. ASP.NET 4 has different programming models to fit the style of different programmers. Some like MVC because of its modularity, extensibility, and focus on testing. Other developers might like the more script-like model of Web Pages. And then there’s Web Forms… (no comment =D) So citing advantages of one model over another isn’t really doable, but it’s comes down to how you like to write your web apps.
If the latter (ASP.NET vs PHP vs Ruby vs etc), then I’ll refrain from the question Whole books can be devoted to the merits of one platform over another. In truth, and this’ll sound like a cop out, there is no perfect platform. There are pros and cons to every platform. The trick is to find the platform you like.
To get back on the subject of just ASP.NET, the question will be moot. ASP.NET Core (formally known as ASP.NET 5) combined MVC, WebAPI, and Web Pages into one framework: MVC. So when ASP.NET Core is finally released, there’ll be really only one choice: MVC.